جمعه 13 خرداد 1390

تاریخچه مدیریت

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تعریف مدیریت

تاکنون تعاریف متعددی برای عبارت مدیریت ارائه شده است. برخی از مهمترین تعاریفی که در این زمینه ارایه شده است به قرار زیر است:

  • هنر انجام امور به‌وسیله دیگران
  • علم و هنر هماهنگی کوشش‌ها و مساعی اعضای سازمان و استفاده از منابع برای نیل به اهداف سازمانی
  • انجام وظایف برنامه‌ریزی، سازماندهی، رهبری، هماهنگی و کنترل
  • فرآیندی که طی آن تصمیم‌گیری در سازمان‌ها صورت می‌پذیرد
  • بازی کردن نقش رهبر، منبع اطلاعاتی، تصمیم‌گیرنده و رابط برای اعضای سازمان

مدیریت از دید کارکردی شامل وظایفی همچون برنامه ریزی، تصمیم گیری، سازماندهی، نوآوری، هماهنگی، ارتباطات، رهبری، انگیزش و کنترل می گردد. این نوع تعاریف از مدیریت اگر چه با کمی و کاستی یا فزونی هایی در واژه های بیان کننده ی وظایف روبرو است، اما به نظر روان تر از تعاریفی است که می کوشند مدیریت را محصور به یک ویژگی خاص نمایند و یا ارزش فلسفی خاصی به مفهوم بیفزایند. با اینحال تعاریف متعدد از مدیریت با توجه به کارکرد های آن از سوی محققانی چون فایول و یا گیولیک دارای تفاوت هایی است که به سادگی نمی توان از آنها گذر کرد. آنچه واضح است علم مدیریت هنوز نتوانسته است تعریف خود را مدیریت کند.


سیر تحول تاریخی نظریه‌های مدیریت

اندیشه‌های نخستین مدیریتی

تمامی مسائل مدیریتی مطرح از ابتدای تاریخ بشر تا سال ۱۹۱۰ در این قسمت طبقه‌بندی می‌شود. مسائلی نظیر سیستم‌های اداری و مدیریتی سومری‌ها، مصری‌ها، ایرانیان باستان و مواردی نظیر ساخت اهرام ثلاثه مصر و ساخت دیوار چین در این حوزه طبقه‌بندی می‌شود.

مکتب کلاسیک

شخصیت‌های زیر از تأثیرگذارترین افراد دورهٔ قبل از کلاسیک [درستی] هستند:

  • چارلز بابیچ، مخترع ماشین‌حساب مکانیکی و اولین شخصی است که به تأثیر محیط در سازمان اشاره کرده.
  • هنری تاون، کسی که اولین مطالعات مربوط به تأثیر محیط کاری بر عملکرد کارکنان توسط وی انجام گرفته است.
  • آدام اسمیت، که به پدر علم اقتصاد مشهور است و برای اولین بار موضوع تقسیم کار در سازمان را مطرح نمود.
  • پیتر دراکر نیز از بزرگترین نظریه‌پردازان مدیریت است.

این تئوری‌ها از سال ۱۹۱۰ شروع شدند و به ۳ دستهٔ کلی تقسیم می‌شوند:

  1. مکتب مدیریت علمی فردریک تیلور
  2. مکتب مدیریت اداری (اصول‌گرایان) هنری فایول
  3. نظریهٔ بروکراسی

محوریت بحث نظریه‌های مدیریت کلاسیک دستیابی به حداکثر کارایی در سازمان می‌باشد. کلاسیک‌ها به سازمان رسمی توجه داشتند و وجود سازمان غیر رسمی را مضر می‌دانستند. دیدگاه‌های کلاسیک شامل یک نگرش صرفاً مکانیکی به سازمان و افراد بوده است. کلاسیک‌ها انسان را همردیف با سایر عناصر تولید می‌دانستند و برای آن هویت مستقل قائل نبودند.

مکتب نئوکلاسیک (روابط انسانی)

در سال ۱۹۲۰، در حالی که غرب رکود اقتصادی را تجربه می‌کرد، برخی از دانشمندان علوم اجتماعی به رهبری التون مایو مطالعاتی را دربارهٔ چگونگی واکنش کارکنان به میزان تولید در صورت تغییر شرایط کاری، طراحی شغل و محرک‌های مدیری آغاز کردند. بخش اعظم این مطالعات در یکی از واحدهای شرکت وسترن الکتریک در شهر هاثورن صورت گرفت که بعدها به مطالعات هاثورن مشهور شد. نئوکلاسیک‌ها بر جنبه‌های انسانی مدیریت تأکید می‌کردند. طرفداران این روش معتقد بودند که مدیریت باید توجه خود را بر افراد متمرکز کند؛ به بیان دیگر متغیرهای اجتماعی را مؤثرتر از متغیرهای فیزیکی می‌دانستند. عمده فعالیت‌هایی که در این دوره انجام شد به دو دستهٔ زیر تقسیم می‌شود:

  • مطالعات هاثورن
  • نگرش رفتاری (مدیریت) که بر این مبنا استوار بود که مدیرانی که روابط انسانی خوبی در محیط کار برقرار می‌کنند می‌توانند به بهره‌وری دست یابند. به علاوه، جنبش روابط انسانی مرحله‌ای را ایجاد کرد که تکامل یافتهٔ آن امروز به‌عنوان رشتهٔ رفتار سازمانی، یعنی مطالعهٔ افراد و گروه‌ها در سازمان مطرح است.

مکتب تجربه گرایی

مکتب سیستمهای اجتماعی

نگرش سیستمی، که تقریباً از دههٔ ۱۹۶۰ در مدیریت مرسوم شد. طرفداران این نظریه معتقدند نگرش سیستمی بهترین طریق برای وحدت بخشیدن به مفاهیم و نظریه‌های مدیریت و دستیابی به نظریه‌ای جامع است

مکتب نوگرا

در مطالعات مدیریت امروز بسیاری از نظریه‌ها از ترکیب تئوری‌های کلاسیک‌ها و نئوکلاسیک‌ها شکل گرفته است. پیروان جدید جنبش مدیریت علمی بر تصمیم‌گیری‌های علمی، به کارگیری رایانه و ابزارهای تصمیم‌گیری تأکید دارند. گروه نظریه‌پردازان امروزی روابط انسانی، از بهبود و بازسازی سازمان صحبت می‌کنند و جای اصول‌گرایان را کسانی گرفته‌اند که معتقدند قبل از آنکه بتوان به اصولی پایبند شد لازم است مدیران زیادی را به طور عملی مورد مطالعه قرار دادنظریات این دوره را می‌توان به دسته‌های زیر تقسیم کرد:

  • نگرش کمی مدیریت، که هدفش کاربرد روش علمی برای حل مسائل فنی در سطح وسیع است. مدیریت کمی سه شاخهٔ اصلی دارد: علم مدیریت یا تحقیق در عملیات، مدیریت عملیاتی و سیستم‌های اطلاعاتی مدیریت
  • نگرش اقتضایی. اساس این نگرش که به آن نگرش موقعیتی نیز گفته می‌شود بر این استوار است که یک الگوی مدیریت برای همهٔ موقعیت‌ها به‌عنوان بهترین راه وجود ندارد. وظیفهٔ مدیر این است که تعیین کند چه روشی، در چه موقعیت خاصی، تحت چه شرایط ویژه‌ای و در چه زمان بخصوصی بهترین زمینه را برای نیل به اهداف مدیریت فراهم می‌کند
  • جنبش جدید روابط انسانی. در طول بیست سال گذشته نظریه‌های دیگری در مدیریت معاصر با نگرش روابط انسانی پدید آمده است که از این قبیل نظریه‌ها می‌توان به نظریه z اشاره کرد.


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یکشنبه 13 مرداد 1398 01:56 ب.ظ
We're having coffee at Nylon Coffee Roasters on Everton Park in Singapore.
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biting his lip.

‘Oh, I wouldn't know. Everything happens for good reason right.

But let me know, utilize reject me, could you Ana?' He said.


‘No, how could I?' , I replied

"So, make use of mind if I kissed you at this time?' he said as I receive nearer to him and kiss him.

‘The next occasion don't ask, just do it.' I reply.

‘I favor how you will think.' , he said.

For the time being, I start scrubbing my your back heel in her leg, massaging it slowly. ‘What can you like in women? And, Andrew, don't spare me the details.' I ask.

‘I really like determined women. Someone discussion what they want. Someone that won't say yes just because I said yes. Someone who's unafraid when you try something mroe challenging,' he says. ‘I'm never afraid of attempting interesting things, especially in regards to making something totally new in the bed room ', I intimate ‘And I adore girls that are direct, who cut from the chase, like you recently did. To be
honest, that's a huge turn on.
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جمعه 11 مرداد 1398 06:41 ب.ظ
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دوشنبه 7 مرداد 1398 04:26 ق.ظ
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